Welcome to my Study Help page.
Here you will find resources to help you prepare for assessments in my class. These resources include things like key vocabulary, online resources and sample documents. Please note, this page will be constantly changing and getting new additions as I make new resources. Keep checking in to see what's new.

Please note: To use the flash cards, you will click the link, go to the site and do a type in "mrcroghan" in the search bar on the tope right. That will open you up to a list of flash cards by me that are organized alphabetically by topic. Click the link you want, and it will open to the flashcard set homepage. If you are looking for definitions, just use the "list/edit flashcards" button near the top. If you want to test yourself, use the "study" button and follow the directions from there.

Civics: US Government: (ELGs 1-8)

What to Know for Civics:

  1. Purpose of Government: Be able to define Power, Authority, State of Nature, Natural Rights and Social Contract. Know the purpose of government and how your key terms help to explain it. John Locke Practice Test
  2. Elements of Good Government: Be able to define common good and civic virtue
  3. Declaration of Independence: Know the four parts of the Declaration. (Introduction, Assertion of Rights, Bill of Indictments and Statement of Independence)
  4. US Constitution- Preamble: Know the six goals of government. (Union, Justice, Tranquility, Common Defense, General Welfare and Liberty): Preamble Flash Cards
  5. US Constitution- Articles: Know that there are seven (7) total Articles, (we worked on the first three), and know the structures & powers (including checks and balances) for each branch Branches Practice Test
    • Articles 1) Legislative, 2) Executive 3) Judicial 4) Relations between States, 5) Amendment Process, 6) Constitution as Supreme Law 7) Ratification
  6. US Constitution- Amendments: Bill of Rights Flash Cards, Bill of Rights Practice Test, Rights Flash Cards Bill of Rights Matching Practice Test
  7. Federalism: Be able to define federalism (federal system).
  8. Responsibilities of a Citizen: Have examples of responsibilities of citizens (i.e. jury duty, selective service, voting)
  9. Key Civics Vocabulary: Civics Flash Cards
  10. Final Civics Review Guide 2011:
  11. Full Civics Practice Test: Coming Soon

Useful Reference Materials:

  • Declaration of Independence: Class Text, Chapter 6, 78-85
  • Constitution (Preamble and Articles): Class Text, Chapter 9, pages 118-131
  • Constitution (Bill of Rights): Class Text, Chapter 10, pages 132-143
  • Federalism: Class Text, pages 128-129
  • Responsibilities of a Citizen: Class Text, page 130
  • All other reference materials for Civics include: Student Notebooks, Text Glossary, Online Flash Cards, Previous Assignments and Assessments.

Learning Games for Civics:

Deeper Questioning:

  • Food for thought:
    • These are the five values on which our government was founded. How have we seen examples of each in class and in the real world? How would you explain these ideas to others?
      • Popular Sovereignty
      • Limited Power
      • Separation of Power
      • Checks and Balances
      • Federalism

Economics: (ELG9)

What to Know for Economics:

  1. Key Economics Vocabulary: Economics Flash Cards Economics Practice Matching Test
  2. Economic Decision Making Grid: Be able to define alternatives, criteria and evaluation. Be able to use an economic decision-making grid to solve a problem and explain your thinking.

Useful Reference Materials:

  • Decision Making of Presidents: Class Text, Chapter 12, pages 160-173 (note that this is only for samples problems to explain using the grid)
  • All other reference materials for Economics include: Student Notebooks, Text Glossary, Online Flash Cards, Previous Assignments and Assessments.

Learning Games for Economics:

Deeper Questioning:

  • Why is gold more valuable than iron? They are both metal, they are both natural resources,and iron is used to make many useful products.
  • How does the price of oil affect the price of a cotton shirt you buy at the store?
  • What happens to the supply of an item as the demand goes up and as demand goes down?

US History: (ELGs 10-22)

  1. Early Presidents and Foreign Policy: Be able to explain the Monroe Doctrine, Specific conflicts with France, Britain, Barbary Pirates, Native Americans and Spain.
    • Foreign Policy Vocab Flash Cards.
    • Copy of the Study Guide:
    • Remember, we studied: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison and Monroe. We also studied how each president made foreign policy decisions based on conflicts with certain nations. The nations we researched included: Britain, France, Barbary Pirates, Native Americans and Spain.
    • Keep in mind that typical problems included seizing ships, impressment, and paying tribute. We also engaged in the War of 1812 and we became involved in supporting the newly independent Latin American nations.
    • Major solutions include: The Jay Treaty (removed troops from the Ohio Valley), avoiding war with France, fighting the Barbary Pirates, The War of 1812 (ending with the Treaty of Ghent), and the Monroe Doctrine.
    • Remember that the Monroe Doctrine told Spain and the rest of Europe to not be involved in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.
    • Practice Tests: Washington through Monroe Practice Test
  2. Immigration: Be able to define key vocabulary: Immigration vocab flash cardsImmigration Practice Matching Vocabulary TestBe able to explain similarities and differences between immigration patterns of the 1800s and now.
  3. Nationalism and Geographic Differences: Era of Good Feelings Vocab Flash Cards Nationalism Practice Test
    • Remember the three cultural/geographic regions: Northeast, South and West
    • Remember the symbols of national unity: Rebuilt Capitol Building, Rebuild White House, Uncle Sam, Patriotic Songs like The Star Spangled Banner.
    • Remember how regional jobs shaped stereotypes, so northeastern businessmen were looked at differently than southern plantation owners and western explorers and pioneers.
  4. Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion Vocab Flash Cards Important Terms, People and Events Sacagawea Bio
    • Animated Map
    • Keep in mind the feeling behind Manifest Destiny. Many US citizens really felt it was the US's responsibility to spread across the continent. It was not just a duty, it was a right. Many even felt the US had the blessings of a high power to do so.
    • Westward Expansion Important Territories and Dates:
      • Louisiana 1803 (purchased from France for $15 million)
      • Florida 1819 (Forced Spain out and paid $5 million to US citizens who had damage claims against Spain)
      • Texas 1845 (Texans won independence from Mexico then the US annexed the territory)
      • Oregon 1846 (Treaty with Britain setting the 49th parallel as the boundary)
      • Mexican Cession 1848 (War with Mexico ending in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
      • Gadsden Purchase 1853 (Purchased from Mexico for $10 million)
    • Westward Expansion Territorial MapUS_Westward_Expansion_Map.jpg
5. Reform Movements: Era of Reform Vocab Flash Cards

Future Units:
6. Slavery:
7. Unraveling Nation:
8. Civil War:
9. Reconstruction:

Useful Reference Materials:

  • Foreign Affairs and First Presidents: Class Text, Chapter 12, pages 160-173
  • Immigration: Class Text, Chapter 26, pages 370-383
  • Nationalism/Symbolism/Geographic Differences: Class Text, Chapter 13, pages 174-183
  • Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny: Class Text, Chapter 15, pages 196-209
  • Reform Movements: Class Text, Chapter 18, pages 240-251
  • Slavery: Class Text, Chapter 20, pages 268-283
  • Unraveling Nation: Class Text, Chapter 21, pages 284-301
  • Civil War: Class Text, Chapter 22, pages 302-321
  • Reconstruction: Class Text, Chapter 23, pages 322-335
  • All other reference materials for US History include: Student Notebooks, Text Glossary, Online Flash Cards, Previous Assignments and Assessments.

Learning Games for US History:

Deeper Questioning:

  • How does the war of 1812, and the success of the Battle of New Orleans (1815) help to return the US to Isolationism?
  • What are the long term affects of the Monroe Doctrine?
  • Does the Monroe Doctrine play any role in Westward Expansion?
  • How do we know that the history we learn is true or real?
  • It has been said that "History is written by the victors." What does that mean? When in our studies have we seen this?
  • George Orwell wrote, " Who controls the present, controls the past." What does that mean?
  • Why might we need immigration?
  • Is immigration a problem, or is it assimilation? Why?
  • Why do we need symbols?
  • How does the physical geography shape our culture?
  • How do you think Americans rationalized moving West and replacing/displacing people along the way?
  • How might the US look today if Americans had not moved beyond the Mississippi? What would be different?
  • How might Westward Expansion be part of the cause for the Civil War?
  • What motivates people to want to see reform?


Final Study Guide:

Final Study Guide for 2012:

Summary Writing:


R.A.C.E.D Short Constructed Response:


Citizenship Study Guides and Practice Tests:

Study Guides:
In English: http://www.history.com/images/media/pdf/100qENG.pdf
In Spanish: http://www.history.com/images/media/pdf/100q_spanish.pdf
Online Practice:
In English: http://www.history.com/shows/classroom/interactives/citizenship-quiz
In Spanish: http://www.history.com/interactives/citizenship-quiz-in-spanish

Any of my flashcards can be found here: http://www.flashcardexchange.com/user/view/801011